I am in the process of buying a 3d-printer, so a good idea is to look at ways of creating 3d models to print. I have some time yet until I get the printer, so it is a good time to learn about the software you may need to master. Of course, the printer has its own software, but you also have to use other programs that are independent of the actual printer. In this post we shall look at some possibilities using mostly free, open source programs. The main exception is use of Photoshop, but I presume Gimp or even inkscape could do the same job as Photoshop here, I’m just using what I know a bit better.
The starting point when using a 3d printer is a virtual 3d computer model of the object you are printing. But sometimes you have a real object and want to create a 3d replica. This will be the subject of our “reverse 3d-printing experiment”: Create a 3D computer replica of a real object. Below is our test specimen, a nostalgic object as it is a metal wrench (or ‘spanner’ if you are in the UK) I got as a kid. It came with my very first bicycle. Can we make a computer replica?
If we place the wrench on our cheap flatbed scanner, maybe there is a way to obtain an accurate profile of it? let us try:
Below left is the raw output from the flatbed scanner, a BMP file. On the right is the same image after slight manipulation using an old Photoshop CS2. The features employed was to select the background with the “colour range” feature, adding some feathering to create a smooth edge. Then one left-over background area was clipped. After that, the inverse of the selection was chosen, and the “levels” feature was used to blacken the wrench. Finally some “Gaussian blur” was applied to the whole image in order to soften the edges even more, and remove any remains of edge highlights from the scanning. The result is basically a black and white image of the wrench. But it is still just a raster image.
What we need is a vectorized representation of the wrench edges. The following steps are a little convoluted, but It can really be simplified by improving the DXF file support in one of the open source programs. But until we have that, we can do the following:
Vectorizing the bitmap image
The first thing we do is to run potrace, a program that boasts the feature we want: “Transforming bitmaps into vector graphics” . We are going to require a file in DXF format, describing the wrench profile, and potrace can generate DXF files. However, it creates a DXF file with some features not understood by other programs, so we have to take a detour via SVG format and Encapsulated Postscript (EPS) format before we return to a simpler representation of DXF that can be used. That means a version with only simple LINES. Below is how I did it, using both Windows and linux along the way. First we run ‘potrace’ to get the SVG file from the fixed-up BMP file:
Let us copy that SVG file over to a Linux Kubuntu machine and run a couple of programs there. First we install inkscape and another program called pstoedit, based on some tips found here.
$ sudo apt-get install inscape
$ sudo apt-get install pstoedit
Now that we have the required software to complete our vectorization detour, let us use them. First we create an intermediate EPS file using inkskape
$ inkscape -E intermediate.eps Wrench_fix.svg
Second we create the final, simplified DXF file using pstoedit, using the option “-polyaslines” to create a simplified DXF file with individual, straight lines. No polylines or spline curves. The final vectorized file is ‘wrench_os.dxf’ here
$ pstoedit -dt -f dxf:-polyaslines\ -mm intermediate.eps wrench_os.dxf
We can now open and view the created DXF file in for example LibreOffice and observe what we have created. It is no longer a bitmap image, but instead a trace of the wrench edges, i.e. a series of vectors.
Creating a 3D model
This is where the fun begins in earnest. There is a really good, and totally free program called OpenSCAD which has some extremely powerful features that enables modelling of 3D objects. This includes so called “Boolean operations” in CSG modelling, but also features for extruding 3D objects from 2D profiles like we have just created. So let us try the following single command in OpenSCAD and watch what happens:
linear_extrude(height = 10) import(“Wrench_os.dxf”);
From that single line, we got something we recognise!
What happened here? We had created the wrench profile in the DXF file. To understand what happened, you can read the above OpenSCAD commands right to left.
First, we imported the DXF file containing a profile in the XY-plane. Second, we extruded (a ‘sweep’ if you prefer) the complete profile 10 units in the Z-direction. The result was a totally recognizable virtual 3d wrench, looking just like the original, nostalgic bicycle wrench.
With this model, we have everything required for creating a 3d printed replica, the next logical step in such a printing process would be to create an STL-file, which simply contains a number of 3-dimensional triangles describing the outer surface of the wrench model.
To prove that it works, we can view the generated STL file in a free STL viewer (chosen by random):
The STL file is available (zipped) here.
There are some incredibly powerful and free software tools available that can be used in combination with a bit of creativity to arrive at some rather impressive results. This is just great. OpenSCAD is a key tool, so this author will spend some time learning it better. A great introduction to OpenSCAD are these tutorials (recommended):
How to use Openscad (1), tricks and tips to design a parametric 3D object
How to use Openscad (2): variables and modules for parametric designs
How to use Openscad (3): iterations, extrusions and more modularity!
How to use Openscad (4): children and advanced topics
There will be more on 3d printers from this blog.